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健身器械的工业设计

健身器械的工业设计

又是一个非常大的市场。

wiki对于健身的一个定义:
引用:
健身又称健美,起源于古希腊,最初只由男性参加,以男子的粗壮的脖子、发达的胸肌、灵活的双腿为美。

现代健美比赛裁判通常由解剖学家等组成。

现代健美运动由德国人山道开始。
乐乎设计,乐乎生活~

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一个分类指导:http://xjhealth.com/dsty1.htm
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全球顶级健身器械   


定义:顶级健身器材指在某一高度上其他品牌无可替代的,具有全球性权威的健身器械品牌,一般指在专业领域内或非家用领域内的健身设备。  

一、品牌分类:

                       1.有氧器械:跑步机顶级品牌    LifeFitness
              椭圆机顶级品牌    Precor
              台阶器顶级品牌    StairMaster
              健身车顶级品牌    Bodyguard
              划船机顶级品牌    Concept-II
              动感单车顶级品牌   Schwinn

         2.力量器械:单机种类顶级品牌   Cybex
              单机造型顶级品牌   Nautilus
              组合器械顶级品牌   Vectra
              杠哑铃片顶级品牌   Ivanko

         3.综合品牌:综合系列顶级品牌   Technogym
  
二,健身器械说明

     1.Lifefitness(力健牌):在全球设备品牌中,以其独特的跑步机设计而闻名,超前的设计思路与独特的防震系统,划出了跑步机的专业与应用的分界线。全球认可的TR9100,TR9500,TR9700,TR9000系列中,夸张的表盘是一种霸气的表现。之后的90T,91T,93Ti,95Ti,97Ti及全新95T系列等,更加时尚,前卫,让你的会员领略革命性的有氧体验,出色的娱乐功能与卓越的产品性能,实现全面的身心激励,是国内最为认可的跑步机品牌之一。

    2.Precor(必确牌):在全球椭圆机专利上,不可否认Precor 发明了它,EFX544风靡一时,是它的创新,它的专业精神,也使它成为有氧设备的鼻祖之一。Precor的精神是为后来者所认同的,因为Precor在椭圆机方面的专业,他代表着椭圆机发展的过程,EFX564,EFX554,EFX534,还可以见到EFX544的设计框架,但加入了流线的设计,更趋完美,毫无疑问Precor是椭圆机的先驱。

    3.StairMaster(班霸牌):台阶器或楼梯机的叫法其实是从StairMaster7000开始的,他之所以有这种产品,是因为它的创意与创新,最早最优秀的stepper台阶器,是由StairMaster开始的,它达到了台阶器中的专业与顶级,包括后来改进的慢步机,虽然它的总体销量小于Lifefitness,Precor等,但无可否认,在台阶器上StairMaster早已将Lifefitness,Precor抛在身后,因为它专业。

    4.Concept-II:全球的专业健身人士提到这一品牌都知道,Concept-II,是划船机的代言人与鼻祖。专业精神是它的宗旨,不时创新是它的任务。联网程序设计使它的产品遥遥领先于其它的有氧设备品牌,他只有划船机,所以他是划船机之王。

  5.Bodyguard:全球专业生产健身车的厂家很多,但专业生产专业健身车 rocycle技术,是全球专业健身车制造厂家所一直在模仿的,而弧形的设计则是因为它更代表专业与高贵。

    6.Schwinn(思汶牌):动感单车或竞赛车等多种叫法,都归于它的品牌中。因为它是这种车子的创造者与权威,有了它的创新,才有了现代动感单车聚群锻炼方式。因而它开辟的不仅是动感单车,而且还有锻炼方式与专业技术。动感单车的产生,是Schwinn的荣誉,不可否认,Schwinn代表着动感单车权威。

  7.Cybex(赛百斯牌):它的力量训练设备中的双轴使用法是他的发明,VRII系列到目前仍是设备制造上的一种延续与发展。一千余种设备种类集中于力量型器材方面,他无可厚非是力量种类及专业中的上等品。只是它后期转向有氧器材方面,Trotter品牌是它的败笔,这无疑使Cybex的品牌效应下滑了,不过目前它仍是全球力量设备上的佼佼者。

    8.Nautilus(诺得士牌):它的力量设备在技术方面发挥到了极致,旋轮与四杠杆原理及微调装置成为目前全球的领先力量生产厂家所遵循的原则与技术。可以讲Nautilus发明了专业力量设备以及专业训练法。同时Nautilus又在有氧设备上成功收购StairMaste及Schwinn,相比之下,Nautilus有着更高的层次。

    9.Vectra(威华牌):组合练习器,或叫MiniGym,它的设计与质量首屈一指,在二十世纪八九十年代,是综合健身器械的卓越代表。只是进入后期,它的品牌度在下降。这同它本身的营销有关,但不可否认,在目前它还是综合训练设备的顶级品牌,更希望它能重新崛起。

    10.Ivanko:只有杠哑铃片,但品牌认可度反映非常好,竟能成为小东西的霸主品牌而将其它厂家击败,令人敬畏。

    11.Technogym(太空牌):唯一的一个欧洲品牌,却有着不同凡响的发展速度,有氧与力量设备都同时进入顶级品牌中的品牌。除了品牌与质量外,技术上的创新也是成功的。可以说它是在品牌运作中更成功的一个品牌,一个后起之秀。

  三,全球权威性行业评价

  美国力健LIFE FITNESS健身器械  www.lifefitness.com

  作为世界领先的商业健身器械生产商,LifeFitness--力健拥有300多种心血管训练产品和力量型训练器械、广泛的售后服务、公认的行业领导地位,以及美国500强总公司——宾士域公司的强大经济实力。

  什么都力求完美,这就是力健的做法。

  世界各地的专业运动员、私人教练及崇尚健康和时尚人们的希望和梦想都取决于LifeFitness产品的性能,这是一个一致认同的问题。

  在您的健身场所使用的所有力健的产品都是名副其实的创意设计奖.。获得过50多个美国专利。力量生产线中的卓越系列在2005年度工业设计优秀奖中获得银质创意奖。这项奖项由美国商务周刊发起,并由美国工业设计协会独立运行。根据该周刊,这些奖项代表了美国、亚洲和欧洲最佳中的最佳。

  美国NORDIC TRACK健身器械  www.nordictrack.com

  2002年,ICON公司生产的“诺迪克”(Nordic Track)品牌跑步机成为了美国空军一号(总统专机)上的跟机设备。

  美国诺德士NAUTILUS健身器械  www.nautilus.com

  美国诺德士是美国著名的健身器材设备之一.其下拥有众多品牌的健身器材.

  美国碧雀PRECOR健身器械  http://precor.com

  Precor公司成立20多年以来,开发了各式各样的健身器械,并且改变了人们原有的健身观念,是世界上著名的生产具有高技术性、创造性的健身器械的厂家。PRECOR针对不同使用者,提供了各种器械,使所有的使用者都能通过简单操作就能容易、有效、安全地达到不同的使用效果。全球数一数二的健身器械和服务提供商。

  美国爱康ICON健身器械公司  www.iconfitness.com

  美国爱康(ICON)公司是世界最大的家用健身器材公司。产品覆盖美国,在国际市场上约占25%,它的产品一直引领着家用国际市场。

  意大利泰诺健TECHNOGYM健身器械  www.technogym.com

  意大利泰诺健TECHNOGYM健身器材做为世界四大品牌之一,一直提供最好的健身器械,多次被奥运会作为指定器械。

美国星驰StartTrac健身器械设备供应商  www.startrac.com
  美国星驰StartTrac健身器械是世界四大品牌之一。旗下著名的SPINNING动感单车是最受欢迎的品牌之一。

  美国KEISER健身器械  www.keiser.com

  美国KEISER健身器械是一家有30年历史的,提供全系列的健身器械设备.KEISER器械创造不同。

  Paramount霸力门健身器械美国  www.paramountfitness.com

  Paramount霸力门是美国著名的力量健身器械。  

  美国IVANKO健身配件供应商  http://ivanko.com

  美国IVANKO以生产杠铃片著名,提供各种专业的健身及比赛用杠铃片。

美国雷蒙德LeMond Fitness单车健身有限公司 www.lemondfitness.com

  美国雷蒙德LeMond Fitness室内单车器材引领时尚。

康盛弹跳器Kingjumper 弹跳健身器时尚潮流.
乐乎设计,乐乎生活~

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健身好处多多啊~   
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何曾几时,却发现自己的精神越来越差,上班老打嗑睡;体力越来越差,稍微动一下就气喘吁吁;身材越来越差,脂肪在身上不断地漫延;皮肤越来越差,看起来暗淡无光碎纹四布;身体越来越差,各种毛病纷至沓来……

于是便有人苦寻良方,美容、减肥、吃药……

一些商家也看出其中的商机,用出各种手段大捞油水,但结果许多人往往是费尽周折却徒劳无功,因为那些都是治标不治本的方式,没有从根本上改善人体.其实,健康及美丽的钥匙就在我们的手上--那就是健身。健身可以为我们带来的好处:

一、改善体形:健身最基本的作用就是改变体形,通过健身可以令身体的任何部位(只要是有肌肉组织的部位)增大或减小并有效地改变其形状,达到形体漂亮的效果,并且这一过程是可以控制的。

二、 有益健康:健身人体的肌肉、骨骼、血液循环系统、呼吸系统、内分泌等比一般的运动有更强的刺激,对于改善人体的健康状况更有效果。

三、 延缓衰老:通过健身能使自己的激素分泌处于一个比较高的水平,从而达到延缓衰老的效果。那些坚持锻炼的人有些男的到六十多岁还能保持良好的性功能和充沛的体力;有些女的到了五十多岁全身的肌肤一样收紧,全身没有一点赘肉,处处流露出青春的气息。

四、精力充沛:有了强壮的身体,整个人也变得精力充沛,随时都可以有最好的精神状态。

五、充满自信:最关键的是很多人并不知道健身对一个人的心理面有多大的影响,当你经历健身的锻炼之后,你会感到自己会有一种力量,一种自信,几乎可以让拥有你应付一切事情,挑战一切事情的能力的感觉。别人刮目相看的眼光,也能让你情绪激昂,做事的热情会更足。

在现代社会,能拥有以上条件意味什么?意味着你能更从容地进行社交活动,更有精力地应付事业和生活上的各种事情,以更健康的身体和心态来生活。意味着你的人生可以变得更加充实、丰富和美好!

只要进行适量的健身运动和注意一下生活习惯,你会发现生活从未如此的轻松和谐和健康。
乐乎设计,乐乎生活~

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英文wiki的说明,还是比较详细。

Bodybuilding
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  

Professional Bodybuilder Gustavo Badell posing Bodybuilding is the process of maximizing muscle hypertrophy. Someone who engages in this activity is referred to as a bodybuilder. As a sport, called competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders display their physiques to a panel of judges, who assign points based on their aesthetic appearance. The muscles are revealed through a combination of fat loss, oils, and tanning (or tanning lotions) which combined with lighting make the definition of the muscle group more distinct. Famous bodybuilders include Arnold Schwarzenegger, Lou Ferrigno, Franco Columbu, and current Mr. Olympia Jay Cutler. As Alan M. Klein states in Little Big Men, “Bodybuilding is a subculture of hyperbole. In its headlong rush to accrue flesh, everything about this subculture exploits grandiosity and excess."[1]

Contents
1 History
    1.1 Early years
     1.2 1970s onwards
2 Areas
3 Competition
     3.1 Preparation for a Contest
4 Strategy
     4.1 Weight training
     4.2 Nutrition
         4.2.1 Dietary supplements
     4.3 Performance enhancing substances
     4.4 Rest
4.5 Overtraining




History

  Early years

The "Early Years" of Western Bodybuilding are considered to be the period between 1880 and 1930.

Bodybuilding (the art of displaying the muscles) did not really exist prior to the late 19th century, when it was promoted by a man from Prussia (Germany) named Eugen Sandow,[2] who is now generally referred to as "The Father of Modern Bodybuilding". He is credited as being a pioneer of the sport because he allowed an audience to enjoy viewing his physique in "muscle display performances". Although audiences were thrilled to see a well-developed physique, those men simply displayed their bodies as part of strength demonstrations or wrestling matches. Sandow had a stage show built around these displays through his manager, Florenz Ziegfeld. The Oscar winning 1936 film "The Great Ziegfeld", depicts this beginning of modern bodybuilding when Sandow began to display his body for carnivals. The role of Sandow was played by actor Nat Pendelton.

Sandow became so successful at flexing and posing his physique, he later created several businesses around his fame and was among the first to market products branded with his name alone. He was credited with inventing and selling the first exercise equipment for the masses (machined dumbbells, spring pulleys and tension bands) and even his image was sold by the thousands in "cabinet cards" and other prints.

Sandow was a strong advocate of "the Grecian Ideal" (this was a standard where a mathematical "ideal" was set up and the "perfect physique" was close to the proportions of ancient Greek and Roman statues from classical times). This is how Sandow built his own physique and in the early years, men were judged by how closely they matched these "ideal" proportions. Sandow organised the first bodybuilding contest on 14 September 1901 called the "Great Competition" and held in the Royal Albert Hall, London, UK. Judged by himself, Sir Charles Lawes, and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the contest was a huge success and was sold out and hundreds of physical culture enthusiasts were turned away. The trophy presented to the winner was a bronze statue of Sandow himself sculpted by Frederick Pomeroy. The winner was William L. Murray of Nottingham, England. The most prestigious bodybuilding contest today is the Mr. Olympia, and since 1977, the winner has been presented with the same bronze statue of Sandow that he himself presented to the winner at the first contest.[3]

On 16 January 1904, the first large-scale bodybuilding competition in America took place at Madison Square Garden in New York City. The winner was Al Treloar and he was declared "The Most Perfectly Developed Man in the World". Treloar won a $1,000 cash prize, a substantial sum at that time. Two weeks later, Thomas Edison made a film of Al Treloar's posing routine. Edison also made two films of Sandow a few years before, making him the man who made the first three motion pictures featuring a bodybuilder. In the early 20th century, Bernarr Macfadden and Charles Atlas, continued to promote bodybuilding across the world. Alois P. Swoboda was an early pioneer in America and the man whom Charles Atlas credited with his success in his statement: "Everything that I know I learned from A. P. (Alois) Swoboda."[citation needed]

Other important bodybuilders in the early history of bodybuilding prior to 1930 include: Earle Liederman (writer of some of the earliest bodybuilding instruction books), Seigmund Breitbart (famous Jewish bodybuilder), Georg Hackenschmidt, George F. Jowett, Maxick (a pioneer in the art of posing), Monte Saldo, Launceston Elliot, Sig Klein, Sgt. Alfred Moss, Joe Nordquist, Lionel Strongfort (Strongfortism), Gustav Fristensky (the Czech champion), and Alan C. Mead, who became an impressive muscle champion despite the fact that he lost a leg in World War I.


1970s onwards
In the 1970s, bodybuilding had major publicity thanks to Arnold Schwarzenegger and Mike Sweis and the 1977 film Pumping Iron. By this time the IFBB dominated the sport and the AAU took a back seat.

The National Physique Committee (NPC) was formed in 1981 by Jim Manion, who had just stepped down as chairman of the AAU Physique Committee. The NPC has gone on to become the most successful bodybuilding organization in the U.S., and is the amateur division of the IFBB. The late 1980s and early 1990s saw the decline of AAU sponsored bodybuilding contests. In 1999, the AAU voted to discontinue its bodybuilding events.

This period also saw the rise of anabolic steroids used both in bodybuilding and many other sports. To combat this, and to be allowed to be an IOC member, the IFBB introduced doping tests for both steroids and other banned substances. Although doping tests occurred, the majority of professional bodybuilders still used anabolic steroids for competition. During the 1970s the use of anabolic steroids was openly discussed partly due to the fact they were legal.[4] However the U.S. Congress in the Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 placed anabolic steroids into Schedule III of the Controlled substance act (CSA).

In 1990, wrestling promoter Vince McMahon announced he was forming a new bodybuilding organization, the World Bodybuilding Federation (WBF). McMahon wanted to bring WWF-style showmanship and bigger prize money to the sport of bodybuilding. McMahon signed 13 competitors to lucrative long-term contracts, something virtually unheard of in bodybuilding up until then. Most of the WBF competitors immediately abandoned the IFBB. In response to the WBF's formation, IFBB president Ben Weider blacklisted all the bodybuilders who had signed with the WBF. The IFBB also quietly stopped testing their athletes for anabolic steroid use since it was difficult to compete thus with a new organization which did not test for steroids. In 1992, Vince McMahon instituted drug testing for WBF athletes because he and the WWF were under investigation by the federal government for alleged involvement in anabolic steroid trafficking. The result was that the competitors in the 1992 WBF contest looked sub-par, according to some contemporary accounts. McMahon formally dissolved the WBF in July, 1992. Reasons for this probably included lack of income from the pay-per-view broadcasts of the WBF contests, slow sales of the WBF's magazine Bodybuilding Lifestyles (which later became WBF Magazine), and the expense of paying multiple 6-figure contracts as well as producing two TV shows and a monthly magazine. However, the formation of the WBF had two positive effects for the IFBB athletes: (1) it caused IFBB founder Joe Weider to sign many of his top stars to contracts, and (2) it caused the IFBB to raise prize money in its sanctioned contests. Joe Weider eventually offered to accept the WBF bodybuilders back into the IFBB for a fine of 10% of their former yearly WBF salary.

In the early 2000s, the IFBB was attempting to make bodybuilding an Olympic sport. It obtained full IOC membership in 2000 and was attempting to get approved as a demonstration event at the Olympics which would hopefully lead to it being added as a full contest. This did not happen. Olympic recognition for bodybuilding remains controversial since many argue that bodybuilding is not a sport.[5]

In 2003, Joe Weider sold Weider Publications to AMI, which owns The National Enquirer. Ben Weider is still the president of the IFBB. In 2004, contest promoter Wayne DeMilia broke ranks with the IFBB and AMI took over the promotion of the Mr. Olympia contest.


Areas
Professional bodybuilding

In the modern bodybuilding industry "rofessional" generally means a bodybuilder who has won qualifying competitions as an amateur and has earned a 'pro card' from the IFBB. Professionals earn the right to compete in sanctioned competitions including the Arnold Classic and the Night of Champions. Placings at such competitions in turn earn them the right to compete at the Mr. Olympia; the title is considered to be the highest accolade in the professional bodybuilding field.

Natural bodybuilding


In natural contests bodybuilders are routinely tested for illegal substances and are banned for any violations from future contests. Testing can be done on urine samples, but in many cases a less expensive polygraph (lie detector) test is performed instead. What qualifies as an "illegal" substance, in the sense that it is prohibited by regulatory bodies, varies between natural federations, and does not necessarily include only substances that are illegal under the laws of the relevant jurisdiction. Illegal Anabolic steroids, Prohormone and Diuretics, under widespread use by professional bodybuilders, are generally banned by natural organizations. Natural bodybuilding organizations include NANBF (North American Natural Bodybuilding Federation), and the NPA (Natural physique association). Natural bodybuilders assert that their method is more focused on competition and a healthier lifestyle than other forms of bodybuilding.

Female bodybuilding



Lyen Wong poses with training weightsIn the 1970s, women began to take part in bodybuilding competitions, and was extremely popular for a time. More than ever women are training with weights for exercise purposes with desire for a more attractive body and to prevent bone loss.[6] Many women however still fear that weight training will make them "bulky" and believe weight training is only for men. However strength training has many benefits for women including increased bone mass and prevention of bone loss as well as increased muscle strength and balance.[7][8] In recent years, the related areas of fitness and figure competition have gained in popularity, providing an alternative for women who choose not to develop the level of muscularity necessary for bodybuilding. The first Ms. Olympia contest in 1980, won by Rachel McLish, would resemble closely what is thought of today as a fitness and figure competition.


Competition
For biographies of professional bodybuilders see list of female bodybuilders, list of male professional bodybuilders, and Categoryrofessional bodybuilders

In competitive bodybuilding, bodybuilders aspire to develop and maintain an aesthetically pleasing (by bodybuilding standards) body and balanced physique. The competitors show off their bodies by performing a number of poses - bodybuilders spend time practicing their posing as this has a large effect on how they are judged.

A bodybuilder's size and shape are far more important than how much he or she can lift. The event should therefore not be confused with strongman competition or powerlifting, where the main point is on actual physical strength, or with Olympic weightlifting, where the main point is equally split between strength and technique. Though superficially similar to the casual observer, the fields entail a different regimen of training, diet, and basic motivation.


Preparation for a Contest

A bodybuilder posing on stage during competitionThe general strategy adopted by most present-day competitive bodybuilders is to make muscle gains for most of the year (known as the "off-season") and approximately 3-4 months from competition attempt to lose body fat (referred to as "cutting"). In doing this some muscle will be lost but the aim is to keep this to a minimum. There are many approaches used but most involve reducing calorie intake and increasing cardio, while monitoring body fat percentage.

In the week leading up to a contest, bodybuilders will begin decreasing their water intake so as to deregulate the systems in the body associated with water flushing. They will also increase their sodium intake. At the same time they will decrease their carbohydrate consumption in an attempt to "carb deplete". The goal during this week is to deplete the muscles of glycogen. Two days before the show, sodium intake is reduced by half, and then eliminated completely. The day before the show, water is removed from the diet, and diuretics may be introduced. At the same time carbohydrates are re-introduced into the diet to expand the muscles. This is typically known as "carb-loading." The end result is an ultra-lean bodybuilder with full hard muscles and a dry, vascular appearance.

Prior to performing on stage, bodybuilders will apply various products to their skin to improve their muscle definition - these include fake tan commonly called "pro tan" (to make the skin darker) and various oils (to make the skin shiny). They will also use weights to "pump up" by forcing blood to their muscles to improve size and vascularity. Some may also gorge on sugar-rich candies to enhance the visibility of their veins, often considered a sign of high muscle-definition.


Strategy
Bodybuilders use three main strategies to maximize muscle hypertrophy:

Strength training through weights or elastic/hydraulic resistance
Specialised nutrition, incorporating extra protein and supplements where necessary
Adequate rest, including sleep and recuperation between workouts
Water is very important during and after a workout to prevent dehydration.

Weight training
Weight training causes micro-tears to the muscles being trained; this is generally known as microtrauma. These micro-tears in the muscle contribute to the soreness felt after exercise, called delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). It is the repair to these micro-trauma that result in muscle growth. Normally, this soreness becomes most apparent a day or two after a workout. However, as muscles become adapted to the exercises, soreness tends to decrease.[9]


Nutrition

A Bodybuilder flexing his muscles.The high levels of muscle growth and repair achieved by bodybuilders require a specialized diet. Generally speaking, bodybuilders require more calories than the average person of the same weight to support the protein and energy requirements needed to support their training and increase muscle mass. A sub-maintenance level of food energy is combined with cardiovascular exercise to lose body fat in preparation for a contest. The ratios of food energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats vary depending on the goals of the bodybuilder.[10]

Carbohydrates play an important role for bodybuilders. Carbohydrates give the body energy to deal with the rigors of training and recovery. Bodybuilders seek out low-glycemic polysaccharides and other slowly-digesting carbohydrates, which release energy in a more stable fashion than high-glycemic sugars and starches. This is important as high-glycemic carbohydrates cause a sharp insulin response, which places the body in a state where it is likely to store additional food energy as fat rather than muscle, and which can waste energy that should be directed towards muscle growth. However, bodybuilders frequently do ingest some quickly-digesting sugars (often in form of pure dextrose or maltodextrin) after a workout. This may help to replenish glycogen stores within the muscle, and to stimulate muscle protein synthesis.[11]

Protein is probably one of the most important parts of the diet for the bodybuilder to consider. Functional proteins such as motor proteins which include myosin, kinesin, and dynein generate the forces exerted by contracting muscles. Current advice says that bodybuilders should consume 25-30% of protein per total calorie intake to further their goal of maintaining and improving their body composition.[12] This is a widely debated topic, with many arguing that 1 gram of protein per pound of body weight is ideal, some suggesting that less is sufficient, while others recommending 1.5, 2, or more.[13][14][15][16] It is believed that protein needs to be consumed frequently throughout the day, especially during/after a workout, and before sleep.[17] There is also some debate concerning the best type of protein to take. Chicken, beef, pork, fish, eggs and dairy foods are high in protein, as are some nuts, seeds, beans and lentils. Casein or whey are often used to supplement the diet with additional protein. Whey protein is the type of protein contained in many popular brands of protein supplements, and is preferred by many bodybuilders because of its high Biological Value (BV) and quick absorption rates. Bodybuilders usually require higher quality protein with a high BV rather than relying on protein such as soy, which is often avoided due to its claimed estrogenic properties.[18] Still, some nutrition experts believe that soy, flax seeds and many other plants that contain the weak estrogen-like compounds or phytoestrogens can be used beneficially as phytoestrogens compete with this hormone for receptor sites in the male body and can block its actions. This can also include some inhibition of pituitary functions while stimulating the P450 system (the system that eliminates chemicals, hormones, drugs and metabolic waste product from the body) in the liver to more actively process and excrete excess estrogen.[19][20]

Bodybuilders usually split their food intake for the day into 5 to 7 meals of roughly equal nutritional content and attempt to eat at regular intervals (normally between 2 and 3 hours). This method purports to serve two purposes: to limit overindulging as well as increasing basal metabolic rate when compared to the traditional 3 meals a day. However, this has been debunked as the most reliable research using whole-body calorimetry and doubly-labeled water finds no metabolic advantage to eating more frequently.[21][22]


Dietary supplements

The important role of nutrition in building muscle and losing fat means bodybuilders may consume a wide variety of dietary supplements.[23] Various products are used in an attempt to augment muscle size, increase the rate of fat loss, improve joint health and prevent potential nutrient deficiencies. Scientific consensus supports the effectiveness of only a small number of commercially available supplements when used by healthy, physically active adults[citation needed]. Creatine is probably the most widely used performance enhancing legal supplement. Creatine works by turning into creatine phosphate, which provides an extra phosphorus molecule in the regeneration of ATP. This will provide the body with more energy that lasts longer during short, intense bits of work like weight training.


Performance enhancing substances
Some bodybuilders use drugs to gain an advantage in hypertrophy, especially in professional competitions. Although these substances are illegal without prescription in many countries, in professional bodybuilding anabolic steroids and precursor substances such as prohormones are used very frequently. Anabolic steroids cause muscle hypertrophy of both types (I and II) of muscle fibers caused likely by an increased synthesis of muscle proteins. Some negative side-effects accompany steroid abuse, such as hepatotoxicity, gynecomastia, acne, male pattern baldness and a decline in the body's own testosterone production, which can cause testicular atrophy.[24][25][26]

Growth Hormone (GH) and insulin are also used. GH is relatively expensive compared to steroids, while insulin is very readily available yet fatal if misused. See Growth hormone treatment for bodybuilding.


Rest
Although muscle stimulation occurs in the gym lifting weights, muscle growth occurs afterward during rest. Without adequate rest and sleep, muscles do not have an opportunity to recover and build. About eight hours of sleep a night is desirable for the bodybuilder to be refreshed, although this varies from person to person. Additionally, many athletes find a daytime nap further increases their body's ability to build muscle. Some bodybuilders take several naps per day, during peak anabolic phases.


Overtraining

Overtraining refers to when a bodybuilder has trained to the point where his workload exceeds his recovery capacity. There are many reasons that overtraining occurs, including lack of adequate nutrition, lack of recovery time between workouts, insufficient sleep, and training at a high intensity for too long (a lack of splitting apart workouts). Training at a high intensity too frequently also stimulates the central nervous system (CNS) and can result in a hyper-adrenergic state that interferes with sleep patterns.[27] To avoid overtraining, intense frequent training must be met with at least an equal amount of purposeful recovery. Timely provision of carbohydrates, proteins, and various micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, even nutritional supplements are acutely critical.

It has been argued that overtraining can be beneficial. One article published by Muscle & Fitness magazine stated that you can "Overtrain for Big Gains". It suggested that if one is planning a restful holiday and they do not wish to inhibit their bodybuilding lifestyle too much, they should overtrain before taking the holiday, so the body can rest easily and recuperate and grow. Overtraining can be used advantageously, as when a bodybuilder is purposely overtrained for a brief period of time to super compensate during a regeneration phase. These are known as "shock micro-cycles" and were a key training technique used by Soviet athletes.[28] However, the vast majority of overtraining that occurs in average bodybuilders is generally unplanned and completely unnecessary.[29]
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跑步用GPS,有意思


专为健走运动的爱好者设计的Forerunner系统具有嵌入式GPS传感器,可以提供基本的导航功能,它还配有数字心速监测仪。该系统还集成了基于PC的运动训练软件。在运动锻炼过程中,该系统能够显示锻炼时间、步速、距离、每圈的速度、时间、距离、平均及最高速度、坡度和卡路里值。12路并行通道的GPS接收器可不停的进行追踪,可采用来自多达12颗卫星的数据,用来测量速度和距离。电子地图可以清晰标出用户的位置。
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